Skip to main content

REL 130: Biblical Hebrew II: Chicago Citations

Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago (CMS)

Many academic disciplines have a unique ccitation style. For the study of Religion, The Chicago Manual of Style is the standard. Use the links below to aid you in creating your bibliographies with these format.  

Why Cite Sources?

There are at least three reasons why writers cite their sources:

  • To establish credibility with readers by calling on solid, reputable sources as "expert witnesses"
  • To provide readers with the information they need to delve further into the topic
  • To give credit where it is due and avoid plagiarism

The primary rule of thumb for when to include a citation is: Provide a ciation when the words OR ideasare not your own. The exceptoin to this rule is when the information is common knolwedge - fimple factual information found in multiple sources. However, you also should use this checklist to be sure your citaitons are complete.

  • Did I provide a reference for every idea that came from a source? Cite all of your sources, even if you put the information in your own words. You do not have to cite sources for "common knowledge" - factual information that can be found in multiple sources such as dates or widely-known information.
  • Do all of my in-text references have a complete citation in my list of sources and can the reader easily move from an in-text reference to the full citation in the list?
  • Does my reader have all the information needed to find each source? 

Because scholars in different disciplines emphasize different things when they read citations, there are many different styles. The MLA style, used for literary studies, makes sure page numbers are provided in an in-text citaiton because the exactness of a quotation matters; the APA style used in psychology and other social sciences include the year of publication, because when research was conducted is considered particularly significant. The Chicago Style is used by disciplines such as history and religion, which value sources so much it is common to put all the information about a source in a footnote as well as in a bibliography at the end of a paper.

Whatever style you use, citations typically include author, title of the work, and publication informaiton (for books, place, publisher, and year published; for articles, the journal, volume, date, and page numbers; for websites, a URL may be needed). Check out this link from the Pudue Online Writing Lab for additional practical advice: Avoiding Plagiarism

Ask Us!

Librarians are here to help!

  • Visit or call the reference desk: A librarian is generally at the desk or "on call" Monday-Thursday 10:30-4:30 and Friday 10:30-2:30 (Fall & Spring) (507-933-7567)
  • E-mail a librarian: folke@gustavus.edu (please include your name and the best way to contact you)
  • Schedule a consultation: online request form
  • More information: Visit the Ask Us! page
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License