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There are many ways to approach searching for information. Much of it depends on the question you're asking and how that question is discussed by various experts. For example, in fields like political science, scholars might publish scholarly articles, chapters in books, and entire books. Other disciplines, like some of the hard sciences, tend to primarily publish scholarly articles. Use the tips on this page to search efficiently and effectively.
Develop Search Terms
The best way to discover the right search terms to use is to figure out how experts in the field are discussing the topic. There are many ways to do this:
- Skim your course readings to see if there are terms that keep popping up
- Read a reference book for an overview of your topic, including search terms; find reference books in the library catalog or browse the shelves - main floor, Beck Hall side
- Ask your professor (who is an expert in the field!) if there are specialized terms you should be using
- Skim Wikipedia articles about your topic
- Brainstorm synonyms and other similar words that might describe your topic
- Ask a librarian for help - we are skilled at helping you uncover potential search terms and approaches
Specialized Search Features
Databases and library catalogs have specialized search features that will help you conduct more sophisticated searching. Use these various features to save yourself time and headaches.
- Look at the subject headings (sometimes called descriptors). These are specialized terms given to individual books and articles. You can find them in most databases by clicking on the title of a book or article that looks useful. Look for the subject headings. In most databases, you can click any subject heading that looks relevant to bring back every other item that has the same subject heading.
- Most databases let you limit by format, date, language, etc., which can be useful to weed out results that aren't relevant.
- Use keywords to search most databases; they don't always respond well to phrases. Example: "india exports" tends to work much better than "What are some of India's major exports?"
Search in the Right Places
It's easy - and normal - to default to resources that have worked in the past. If Google Scholar or Academic Search Premier helped us find materials for a project in a different course, we naturally would use it again. But be sure to expand your resources, too. There are a lot of specialized databases for Political Science that you should use in addition to others that worked.
- Use the Research Guides to find recommended databases & other resources for various areas of study
- Your topic may be interdisciplinary; the Research Guides will help you find resources if your topic overlaps with Religion or GWS or Philosophy or...
- Ask a librarian for ideas of where and how to search
Search how Scholars Search
Scholars commonly explore the conversation surrounding their topics through bibliographic traces. Scholars read interesting studies or articles or books in their field; scholars then mine the citations in those works to find related research materials. They also look for more recent research materials that have cited the first resource. Here's a page that has more information on how to conduct a bibliographic trace.
Ask for Help
Librarians are personal research consultants. We can help you think through possible search terms, suggest specific resources to search, track down sources and point you in directions you may not have considered. There are many ways to get in touch with us.
Your professors are also here to help, plus they are experts in the field as well. So talk with them about your research & any problems you're having.
Common Research MIstakes
Here are some common mistakes people tend to make while conducting research. We all do at least some version of this, but it's good to recognize when we fall into some of these traps. The tips on this rest of this page will help you self-correct.
- Lack of persistence, especially not going the extra mile to find hard copies of useful sources
- Conducting research in terms of “finding the answer” as opposed to contemplating “how does my work fit with and address existing scholarly conversations on the topic?”
- Only using ”familiar” databases and not using the ones best suited to the topic
- Skipping books entirely
- Not being systematic / reflective / intentional
- Not returning to previous useful databases/catalogs with new search terms
- Not talking with professor & librarians about issues right away
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