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NUR 202: Research and Ethics: Hierarchy of Evidence

Hierarchy of Evidence: Types of Research & Sample Articles

Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Ross, M. J., & Berger, R. (1996). Effects of stress inoculation training on athletes' postsurgical pain and rehabilitation after orthopedic injury. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 406-410.

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Systematic Review

Lankhorst, N., Bierma-Zeinstra, S., & van Middelkoop, M. (2013). Factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review. British Journal Of Sports Medicine, 47(4), 193-206.

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Cohort Design Study

Bradley, J. P., McClincy, M. P., Arner, J. W., & Tejwani, S. G. (2013). Arthroscopic Capsulolabral Reconstruction for Posterior Instability of the Shoulder: A Prospective Study of 200 Shoulders. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(9), 2005–2014.

Observational Study

Garrison, J., Shanley, E., Thigpen, C., Hegedus, E., & Cook, C. (2011). Between-session changes predict overall perception of improvement but not functional improvement in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome seen for physical therapy: An observational study. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 27(2), 137-145.

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Physiologic Study

Chatterjee, P., Banerjee, A. K., Majumdar, P. P., & Chatterjee, P. (2006). Changes in Physiological Profile of Indian Women Boxers During a Six Week Training Camp. International Journal Of Applied Sports Sciences, 18(2), 39-49.

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Case Study or Case Series

Frizziero, A., Benedetti, M. G., Creta, D., Moio, A., Galletti, S., & Maffull, N. (2012). Painful os acromiale: Conservative management in a young swimmer athlete. Journal Of Sports Science & Medicine, 11(2), 352-356.

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Anecdotal Evidence / Expert Opinion

McCrory, P. P., & Bell, S. S. (1999). Nerve Entrapment Syndromes as a Cause of Pain in the Hip, Groin and Buttock. Sports Medicine, 27(4), 261-274.

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